Application Of Bim To Improve Construction Safety Construction Essay

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Application Of Bim To Improve Construction Safety Construction Essay

This chapter begins with a general discussion on the concept of safety before examining the modern concern with workplace health and safety specifically in the construction industry To better relate to the scope of this study it will also review the current workplace safety and health situation in the Singapores construction industry Subsequently an overview of the safety legislations and policies undertaken in Singapore to improve construction safety will be investigated

Introduction to Safety

Although the term safety is very often used in our everyday life the concept of safety can have various meanings for different people According to Oxford Dictionaries Online safety is defined as the condition of being protected from or unlikely to cause danger risk or injury Moreover as safety is commonly viewed from the perspective of specific injury domains some injury preventive researchers defined safety as the prevention of crime and violence whereas the others described it as a feeling of being out of danger or as a satisfaction of the basic human physiological needs

Hence due to the multitude of views on the definition of safety the World Health Organisation WHO Collaborating Centres on Safety Promotion and Injury Prevention has developed an international consensus on the conceptual and operational aspects of safety in 1998 Nilsen et al 2004 They have defined safety as a state in which hazards and conditions leading to physical psychological or material harm are controlled in order to preserve the health and wellbeing of individuals and the community This definition of safety contains two dimensions of which one is objective and can be assessed by measuring behavioural and environmental parameters whereas the other is subjective and can be evaluated according to the feeling of being safe WHO 1998

In addition safety is a resultant of a complex process which integrates humans behaviour and interaction with their physical social cultural technological political economic and organisational environment According to Maurice et al 2001 the optimum level of safety can only be attained with the presence of four conditions that proved beneficial in defining the domain of safety Table 21 indicates the four basic conditions for safety

Table 21 Four basic conditions that define the domain for safety

Four Conditions for Safety


A climate of social cohesion peace and equity between groups that protects human rights and freedoms


The respect of the values of individual and their physical material and psychological integrity


The prevention and control of injuries and other consequences or harm caused by accidents


The provision of effective measures to cope with undesirable traumatic events

Source Maurice et al 2001

Workplace Safety and Health WSH

Before 1880s there was little interest in work safety and minimal protection for the safety of workers in their workplaces because legislation precedent and public opinion were all in favour of the management Pearson nd Moreover workplace accidents were perceived to be cheap and were often disregarded because there were no workers compensation laws that protect the interest of workers Thus workrelated accidents were common then

However in the late 1900s workers safety and health in the workplaces begun to receive increasing attention due to the rapid industrialisation of the United States US and the establishment of unions that promote the need for safer working conditions Hence the high fatalities and injuries rate then compel the federal government to implement various acts to force the industries to reduce the occurrence of workrelated accidents or illnesses so as to improve on the safety standards of their workplaces Aldrich 2001 Some initiatives of the federal government include passing of the Occupational Safety and Health Act OSHA in 1970 and the enactment of the workers compensation laws

Therefore tighter employers liability and the s

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