Archeology Imperialism Colonialism and Nationalism

Archeology Imperialism Colonialism and Nationalism

How does archaeology interact with Imperialism Colonialism and Nationalism Have they contributed to archaeology in any way Discuss with examples

When we look at the history of the archaeology it can be said that the archaeology have always been a part of political activities however the most sensational and the conspicuous time of this interaction between archaeology and the politics can be dated after the French Revolution With the French Revolution the nationalism ideology raised and swiftly spread around the world with industrialization At the first round rising Nationalism awaken the curiosity of the people about their ethnicity With this curiosity people focused ethnicity researches to find out their origins and for this reason many archaeologist take a place in this quest Governments started to support the archaeological excavations and many institutes started to be opened and many archaeology students started to be educated In this manner archaeologists interest began to turn form historic times to pre historic times With the emergence of Darwinian evolutionary theory all these ethnicity research and the focus on the prehistoric excavations prepared foundation of Colonialism and Imperialism

Nationalism is defined by Trigger as an all embracing sense of group identity and loyalty to a common homeland that is promoted by mass media widespread literacy and a comprehensive educational systemTrigger 2007 As a result of Nationalism in the 18th and 19th C the ethnicity concept gained a significant role among the most European states and they started to courage pre historic archaeologist to study the origins and early ethnic groups

Although all the European states made archaeology which serves to the nationalistic ideology for me the most striking and passionate studies are done by Germans who carried nationalism into the fascism level in the Word War II With the establishment of German Society for Anthropology Ethnology and Prehistoric Archaeology Germans began to be professional in the prehistoric archaeology and they introduced culturehistorical approach to the archaeology Trigger 2007 For the nationalistic archaeology Kossina is the most striking name for that period in German archaeology He claimed that the Germans are the noblest topic for the archaeological research and criticized the archaeologists who were studying classical and Egyptian archaeology Trigger 2007 He seeks for the origins of Germans and he wrote Die Herkunft der Germanen He evaluated his archaeological data in a biased way and this evaluation encouraged Germans to regard Slavs and other neighboring European peoples as inferior to themselves and which justified German aggression against these people Trigger 2007 Although Kossina died in 1931 he continued to be effective on the nationalistic and racist actions of Germany For example Nazis supported their discourses by using the works of Kossina

As a result of the nationalistic and ethnic researches people became more aware of the different nationalities such as the French Germans and English etc It encouraged thinking that the people are biologically different from one another therefore their behavior was determined by these racial differences as opposed to social or economic factor This kind of thinking led people to think about the inequality of the races Gobineau who was a part royalist French family claimed that the fate of civilization was determined by their racial composition Trigger 2007

Also in this time Darwins evolutionary thought started to interact with the ethnicity oriented and nationalistic archaeology Darwin claimed that plants and animals pass on their characteristics to their offspring however different offspring vary from each other He believed that some of these offspring suited to their environment than others This idea was explaining tremendous variety and the complexity of the natural world He published his ideas in Origins of Species This book was highly effective on

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