Architecture Air and Airborne Infections

Architecture Air and Airborne Infections

Properties of Air

Earths atmosphere is composed of air Air is a mixture of gases of 78 nitrogen and 21 oxygen with traces of water vapor carbon dioxide argon and various other components Air is a uniform gas with properties that are averaged from all the individual components Air at sea level static conditions for a standard day depends on the pressure and temperature of the location on the earth and season of the year Gas is composed of a large number of molecules which are in constant and random motion

Air pressure and temperature changes from day to day hour to hour and sometimes even minute to minute during severe weather Standard value of air shown in the diagram are just average values used by engineer in assist to design and calculate machines Gravity is the key important factor because it holds the atmosphere to the surface As altitude changes the stateofthe gas factors will change which is why the typical values given are at static conditions sea level As altitude increases air density pressure and temperature decrease

Wind Direction and Speed

Understanding Wind

Wind can be defined as a simple of air movement across the earths surface and can be in any direction which is cause by the differences in air density thus causing in horizontal differences in air pressure greatly than it causes the vertical pressure These pressure systems are essentially the cause and result of spatial differences in atmospheric pressurecirculation

There are general characteristics to describe wind wind Speed and wind Direction which create different types of wind Examples of wind include breeze which is a long duration of low speed wind gusts a short burst of high speed wind strong immediate winds like squalls and lastly strong intense winds like hurricane or typhoon Wind speed is the velocity obtained by a mass of air travelling horizontally through the atmosphere The common measurements for wind speed are kilometres per hourkmph miles per hour mph knots and meters per second by using a anemometer The direction of wind is measured by an instrument called a wind vane

There are two main that effect wind direction and speed
Pressuregradient force
Coriolis force and friction

and lastly friction

These factors work coherently to change the wind in different directions and at different speeds

PressureGradient Force

Pressure gradient force is the primary force influencing the formation of wind Wind always blows from high pressure area to low pressure area on a horizontal gradient Vertically wind flow from low pressure area to high pressure area This pressure gradient force that causes the air in motion and causing the air to move in motion with increasing speed down the gradient Uneven heating on the earths surfaces causes the continual generation of these pressure differences The greater the pressure difference over a certain horizontal distance the greater the force and therefore the stronger the wind

On weather map surfaces the variations of air pressure over the earths surface is indicated by drawing isolines of pressure called isobars

The spacing of the isobars indicates the amount of pressure change over a given distance The closely space in the isobar show steep pressure gradient indicate strong winds relatively widely spaced isobars indicate a weak pressure gradient and light winds

The Coriolis force

The rotation of the Earth creates another force known as the Coriolis force which effects the direction of the wind and other object objects in motion in very predictable ways Newtons first law of motion The law of Inertia state that forces are balanced Air will remain moving in a straight line unless it is altered by an unbalancing force Instead of wind blowing directly from high pressure area to low pressure area Coriolis force opposes the pressure gradient acceleration and changes the moving air direction Wind is deflected to the right of the gradient in the Northern Hemisphere while in th

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