Bim Based Life Cycle Assessment Tool Construction Essay

Bim Based Life Cycle Assessment Tool Construction Essay

Life Cycle Assessment LCA is used to evaluate a particular product process or activity from cradle to grave the environmental effects LCA is methodology for measuring and evaluating some aspects of all relevant costs revenues environmental impacts and performance associated in all stages of an asset over its life cycle ISO15686 2008 it compiles and evaluates an inventory of relevant input output and potential environmental impacts in relation to the objective of study throughout its life cycle ISO14040 2006 LCA provides a complete picture of the interactions of activities with the environment and it is one of the decision supporting tools providing information on environmental effects of these activities and identifies opportunities for environmental improvement for stakeholders to make decision

The concept of LCA started from late 1960s the earliest forerunners were the Resource and Environmental Profile Analyses REPAs and a research founded by Coca Cola funds study of different beverage containers and packaging system LCA been extended used during global oil crises from 1973 emerged many countries began to explore substitute resources to produce energy Energy analysis by comparing different substitute sources through lifecycle basis gave a true indication The interest of LCA continued used for decision making policy through the 1980s The REPA early studies emphasized on raw material energy inputs and waste generation through environmental impact as LCA methodology and modern LCA methodology outlined the components of contemporary LCA from four distinct analytical steps goal definition inventory assessment impact assessment and improvement analysis in the late 1990s released ISO standards 14040 14043 by the International Organisation for Standardisation ISO The latest series includes ISO 140402006 life cycle assessment principles and framework ISO 140411998 standards for goal and scope definition and inventory analysis ISO140422000 life cycle impact assessment and ISO 140432000 life cycle interpretation There still much development tacking place till today

The stages of the LCA methodology based on international standards of series ISO 14040 consists of defining the goal and scope creating the inventory assessing the impact and finally interpreting

Fig Stages of an LCA ISO14040 2006

Today the usage of LCA is extended to the construction industry works have been undertaken on both large and small aspects from internal to external Internally LCA can be used in process analysis product evaluation material selection cement or bricks and product comparison heating systems From externally use LCA can be used for marketing information and education ecolabelling

LCA is a comprehensive method to evaluate environment impact through whole life approach LCA has 40years history and still not been used widely due to there are limitations in using this tool Firstly expected lifetime is various Data collection and data reliability is always the question and difficulties to LCA tool Further uncertainty is everywhere and comparisons between studies are difficult In all LCA is a decision supporting tool no single methods can be used individually in providing a clear solution or decision

There are various LCA tools have been developed based on qualitative and quantitative methods that can assess building environmental impacts from embodied energy operational energy CO2 emission and other emissions from buildings These tools have been classified and categorized into five major categories Detailed LCA Modelling Tool LCA design Tool LCA CAD tool Green Product Guides and Checklist and Building Assessment Schemes

Detailed LCA Modelling Tools

This category of LCA tools to calculate embodied energy and environmental impacts based on materials used building components and processes of the work The most famous used software under this category includes SimaPro TEAM Gabi KCLECO Boustead GaBi PEMS Athena BEES LISA ECOQUANTUM EQUER

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