Blood Protozoan Disease Theileriosis Causes and Prevalence

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Blood Protozoan Disease Theileriosis Causes and Prevalence

The genesis of the problem has been the introduction of the 6 cows from Rajasthan a hot and dry state of India in the Holstein cross bred herd in the Graphic Era University dairy at Dehradun capital of hill state of India Suddenly after introduction of these Sindhi cows there was death of death of 8 cross breed cows in 2010 In spite all possible veterinary treatments However we have examined the blood samples of these animals which were found positive for Theileria and the same was confirmed by Indian Veterinary Research Institute IVRI thus we have reported Theileria for the first time from the hilly region of Uttarakhand 39 The native cows did not suffer of Theileria but crosses of Holstein do suffer and die

Twenty year back in India the cow producing over 1 gallon of milk was considered to be high producing cows Since 1971 the cross breeding with high producing cows of European and North American horizon has introduced Indias cow population is 200 million out of this population 20 percent is cross bred say 40 million These cross bred produce over 15 litres of milk Hence our milk production has increased but the introduction of cross bred animals has increased the vulnerability of herds to tick borne diseases TBDs The most common TBDs in India are tropical theileriosis babesiosis and anaplasmosis The most detrimental blood protozoan is Theileria Our native cows have not been susceptible to Babesia and Theileria 12 370 371 However the cross bred cows has been in danger Theileria are obligate intracellular protozoan parasites that cause theileriosis The babesia affects only adult animals and occurrence of Babesia is marked by red colour urine So it has been diagnosed easily The drug for treatment of Babesia is cheap and easily available in the market and animal can be easily saved The Theileria causes very great damage to cross bred cows because it affects all ages of the cattle and it is transmitted in calves from mother The tick positive with the Theileria has to be attached for 4872 hours which has to be infected

The Theileria protozoan affects the exotic animals but not the native animals Exotic cattle Bos taurus are particularly susceptible with mortalities up to 4080 in some areas whereas indigenous cattle B indicus generally suffer much lower mortalities about 10 confined mainly to calves 57 This is the same as Negro has not affected by malaria where European has affected by malaria Plasmodium falciparum has inhibited in glucose six phosphate deanhydrose G6PDdeficient erythrocytes the parasite has very sensitive to oxidative damage and has killed at oxidative stress level that doesnt affects the G6PDdeficient human Negro host By this human population with G6PDdeficient genotype survives in malaria prevalent ares The same is true about Theileria exotic cow suffers due to Theileria but native do not

The theileriosis has not been fatal in subclinical cases It lowers production and reproduction this is because the tropical theileriosis resulting from the infection with the intracellular protozoan parasite Theileria annulata 379 has considered as aprogressive lymphoproliferative disease which imposes heavy losses due to decreased productivity and considerable mortality in cattle 380 After the invasion of the parasites into lymphoid cells they inrush the erythrocytes to complete part of their life cycle 364 whereby the occurrence of mild to severe anaemia would be inevitable 381 Some recent studies have declared that the anaemia is probably a consequence of the oxidative damage in erythrocytes 382 383 and indicated significant modulations in the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase SOD glutathione peroxidise GPX 384 and catalase 385 Furthermore some studies suggested that erythrocytes destruction during oxidative stress has related to membrane lipid peroxidation 385 This process might cause morphological changes in the cell surface and cellular osmotic fragility whereby an increase in the eryth

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