Bluetongue Virus BTV Causes Types and History

  • Home
  • /
  • India
  • /
  • Bluetongue Virus BTV Causes Types and History

Bluetongue Virus BTV Causes Types and History

The disease was first reported in Pakistan in 1959 and in India in 1964 Sapre 1964 After that BT outbreaks have been reported from sheep and goat in several states of India Being India endemic for BT 21 different serotypes of BTV have been reported Prasad 2000 However recently the 22nd serotype ie BTV21 has also been isolated from India Susmitha et al 2012 Bluetongue is endemic in India with frequent outbreaks in sheep The serological survey on BTV in India has indicated the presence of BTV specific antibodies in Indian sheep goat cattle buffalos camels and several wild ruminants Mehrotra et al 1984 Chandel et al 2003 Prasad et al 1998a De et al 2009

Several serotypes of BTV have been isolated from the regions where sheep population is more The northwestern region of the country is mostly affected with BTV1 The BTV1 has been isolated from sheep goat and Culicoides vector in this region Jain et al 1986 1988 Prasad et al 1994 Biswas et al 2010 The BTV2 BTV9 and BTV15 have been reported from sheep in the Andhra Pradesh state Sreenivasulu et al 1999 Bommineni et al 2008 Balam et al 2011 BTV23 has been reported from Uttarakhand Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Karnataka Jammu and Kashmir Mehrotra et al 1995 1996 Tembhurne et al 2010 In northeast region Assam high seroprevalence of bluetongue in sheep goat and cattle has been reported However virus isolation was not done Joardar et al 2013 The serotype specific serum neutralization test of BTV in Andhra Pradesh during 20052009 showed 500 4423 2115 2692 and 1538 seroprevalence of BTV serotypes 1 2 9 10 and 23 respectively Sairaju et al 2013 The serological study also confirmed the high prevalence 86 of BTV in Mithun in North east region Nagaland of India Rajkhowa et al 2008 The serological survey using dot ELISA and competitive ELISA CELISA techniques confirmed the BTV prevalence in Kerala state Ravishankar et al 2005 The overall BT seroprevalence has been increased to 93 in domestic ruminants in Kerala Arun et al 2014

The BTV15 and BTV21 have been isolated from sheep in eastern part of India West Bengal Joardar et al 2009 The BTV serotype 1 Isolate PTG13 from goats in the Pithoragarh area of Uttarakahand has been isolated Mondal et al 2013

Globally all the BT viruses can be divided into eastern and western topotype of viruses based on geographic origins of the virus Gould 1987 Maan et al 2008 Both eastern and western topotypes of BTV have been isolated from different region of India The trade of livestock and their products along with live attenuated vaccine from western countries have played major role in occurrence of western BTV genome segments in India Rao et al 2012a The eastern topotype BTV1 Maan et al 2012a and western topotype BTV2 and BTV10 Maan et al 2012b Maan et al 2012f have been reported recently The complete genome sequence study of a reassortant strain of BTV16 of goat origin from India has been done recently Minakshi et al 2012 Recently BTV serotype 1 from Culicoides oxystomavector in Gujarat state Dadawala et al 2012 and serotype 10 from Andhra Pradesh Prasad et al 2013 has been isolated

The Indian isolates of BTV shows a great degree of reassortment between different serotypes and also between eastern and western topotype viruses within same serotype The multiple serotypes of BT viruses are circulating in a geographical area which leads to infection with more than one serotype to individual animals and herds It facilitates the exchange of genetic material between different viruses and evolution of new reassortant strains of BTV Reddy et al 2015 A reassortant strain of BTV21 having segment 6 of BTV16 has also been isolated from Andhra Pradesh state Shafiq et al 2013 A reassortant strain of BTV16 having segment 5 ns1 gene of western origin and other segments of eastern origin has been reported from Andhra Pradesh state Kumar et al 2013 Moreover antigen antibody and nucleic acid based methods confirmed the mixed infection of BTV with peste des petits ruminants

* If you are the original writer of this essay and no longer wish to have the essay published on the WetPapers website then please email us at wet papers 1 @ gmail dot com for removal request.

© 2018 WetPapers. All rights reserved. Privacy Policy Terms of Service Disclaimer Copyright