Burj Khalifa The Worlds Tallest Building

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Burj Khalifa The Worlds Tallest Building

On 4th of January 2010 Dubai where there was only windblown litter a generation ago witnessed the opening ceremony of the worlds tallest buildingBurj Khalifa

A brilliant work of art with difficult structural problems took 1325 days to completion since the start of the excavation work in January2004

Burj Khalifa has returned the name of the Worlds Tallest Structure back to the MiddleEastern structures where the Great Pyramid of Giza claimed that honor for millions of years before the construction of Lincoln Cathedral in England in 1311

It is amazing to know that the triplelobed foot print is inspired from the desert flower Hymenocallis which is common in Dubai

Being located in DubaiUAEthe tower was influenced by Islamic and middleeastern architectureThis influence resulted in the triaxial geometry of Burj Khalifa

The tower consists of three wings arranged around the a central core in the shape of YAs the tower rises from the flat desert ground setbacks occur through the 26 helical levels decreasing the crosssection of the tower as it spirals skywards

The Yshape plan is ideal for residential and hotel usage maximizing outwards view and inward natural lightPlusit allows maximum view of the Arabic Gulf

As a supertall structure there were many difficult structural problemsTo ensure safety and effectiveness of the selected designa model of the building was subjected to extensive peer program

Designers used the buttressed core in Burj Khalifa consisting of a hexagonal hub buttressed by three wings bracing each other forming the Yshape Not only bracing each other but acting as a tripod base which is more stable than a fourcornered base The corridor walls of the wings extending from the central core to the end of each wind terminate in a thickened hammer head walls

The main purpose of the Yshape is to reduce the wind effects as well as keeping the structure simple safe and foster constructability The result is a stiff tower that can support itself laterally and overcomes twisting

Setbacks in each tier occur in a spiral stepping pattern up the building These setbacks confuse the wind as the wind vortices never get organized because at each tier the building has different shape

The hexagonal core provides the essential torsional resistance like a closed tube The wing walls and hammer head walls behave as webs and flanges of a beam resisting wind shears and moments Specific strength of concrete walls ranges from C60 to C80 cube strength using Portland cement and fly ash

The C80 concrete used in the lower portion of the building has a specified Youngs Elastic Modulus E of 43800 Nmm2 after 90 days

Wall and column sizes were determined using Virtual workLaGrange multiplier methodology which results in very efficient structure

Wall thickness and column sizes are adjusted to reduce the effect of concrete creep and shrinkage To reduce the effect of differential column shortening between perimeter columns and interior wallsthe size of perimeter columns were adjusted such that the selfweight gravity stress acting on it is equal to that stress on the interior walls

As shrinkage in concrete occurs faster in thinner elements the perimeter columns had the same thickness of interior corridor walls600 mmto ensure that both columns and walls will shorten by the same rate due to concrete shrinkage

That superstructure had foundations consisting of a reinforced concrete raft of thickness 37 meters supported by 194 piles Pouring the raft was divided into four separate pours Self consolidated concrete SCCof C50 cube strength was used

Each pile is 15 meters diameter 43 meter long buried more than 50 meters deep

Piles were designed to support 3000 tons each and while load tests they supported over 6000 tons

Unfortunatelythe towers substructure is constructed in a groundwater having chloride and sulfate concentrations higher than those in sea water

Having these aggressive conditionsa strict program of

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