Causes and Treatments of Dengue fever

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Causes and Treatments of Dengue fever

Abstract

Dengue fever is caused by positivestranded RNA virus of the family Flaviviridae genus Flavivirus Dengue virus is transmitted to humans by a mosquito vector Aedes aegypti belonging to genus Aedes of family Culicideae 50 100 million peoples are affected by dengue virus Indian scientists have develop a vaccine for the prevention of the dengue fever Dengue Virus Genome Contain 10 Viral Protein CprMENS1NS2ANS2BNS3NS4ANS4BNS5 vector population suppression replacement are genetic approaches for control of dengue In the population suppression vector number is reduced to minimize disease transmission and population replacement of wildtype vector was replaced with genetically modified vector incapable of transmitting the disease Sterile Insect Technique SIT is a particular type and environmentally benign way to suppress the insect population it is based on collective farming and radiationmediated sterilization and large number of male insects are release The release of insects carrying a dominant lethal RIDL offers a resolution to many of the weaknesses of traditional SIT which has narrow its application in mosquitoes while sustaining the efficacy ecologically friendly and specific types RNA interference is a mechanism of gene control sequence after transcriptional selectively RNA viruses Interference RNAi pathway is one of the most critical components of the innate immune system of insects that can frustrate a variety of RNA virus such as flavivirus From all the genetic based method RIDL techniques is most advance

Introduction

Dengue fever is a viral disease transmitted by the rapid development of Aedes aegyptiMcCall and Kittayapong 2006 originally innate to West Africa and spread in the whole world Antonelli Clayton et al 50 100 million peoples are affected by dengue virus Wilke and Marrelli 2012 Dengue virus belongs to the Flaviviridae family Dengue virus has four major serotypes but antigenically distinct single stranded RNA viruses The four serotypes of dengue viruses cause disease The severe form of the disease dengue hemorrhagic fever DHF and dengue shock syndrome DHF DSS can lead to internal bleeding and even deathMalavige Fernando et al 2004 Olson Alphey et al 2006

There is no specific therapeutic drug available for dengue fever Indian scientists have develop a vaccine for the prevention of the dengue fever animal trials of this vaccine have yielded good results but it is not yet commercialize By Using yeast pastoris Pichia they have created a noninfectious dengue fever virus like particles made of only large DENV protein envelope to active virusspecific immunityThisyakorn 2013

Dengue virus is 50nm containing lipid membrane180 identical copies of envelop protein is present at the surface of viral membrane short transmembrane segment The virus genome is of about 11000 bases that translates into a single large polyprotein that is cleaved into 3 structural and 7 nonstructural genes and short noncoding regions is also present on both the 5 and 3 ends The structural proteins are the capsid C protein the envelope E glycoprotein and the membrane M proteinAlcarazEstrada YocupicioMonroy et al 2010 Nukui Tajima et al 2006

The increase of vectors in world is reason of emergence of diseases in new areas therefore there is need to control mosquito Bed nets space spraying are largely ineffective against this day biting mosquito Therefore there is a need to develop useful strategy to overcome dengue fever Dengue control can be reduced or elimination of the vector population The population vector can be reduced or eliminated based on genetic methods There are two strategic objectives to control dengue by genetically modified mosquitoesMcCall and Kittayapong 2006 Olson Alphey et al 2006
vector population suppression
population replacement

In the population suppression vector number is reduced to minimize disease transmission and population replacement of wildtype vector was replaced with genetically modifie

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