Cement Industry Environmental Changes

Cement Industry Environmental Changes

Cement Industry

Summary

This report details the way in which the cement industry currently produces cement and outlines the reasons why it needs to be changed in order for it to have a lower less damaging effect on the environment as possible

This can be achieved by implementing new procedures in the process of manufacturing cement and also by using different materials in this process all of these ideas and more are currently being implemented or are being developed for implementation in the near future by the cement industry and associated partners

Terms of reference

This report is on an area of the UK construction industry that has a negative impact on the environment This report was undertaken and focuses on the environmental impact that the production process of cement has on the environment in the UK and how the process in manufacturing cement is changingdeveloping for the future

The report shows how the process of cement production was under taken and what steps have or are waiting to be implemented in the production of cement that will be less damaging to the UK environment

This report was created in November of 2007 for Phil Harris lecturer at Wolverhampton University for Environmental Science in construction

What is Cement

Cement is the second most consumed substance in the world and is second only to water consumption A brief history of Portland cement sees that it was invented and produced in the UK in 1824 by an English bricklayer named Joseph Aspdin He found that by Burning limestone and clay together at incredible heat approx than 2700 degrees Fahrenheit it made the two minerals fuse together Once this newly created material was cool enough it was then ground down into a fine ash this newly created substance could then be mixed with water and the resulting substance that when allowed to set would be as hard as the Portland stone that gave it its name

This article appeared in the Guardian on Thursday May 11 2006 on p1 of the technology section

What do we use Cement for

Cement is one of the single most important materials relied upon in the world without cement we would not be able to build houses roads bridges and other public structures that cement products help to build We need cement to produce concrete concrete is basically a mixture of two components aggregates and paste The paste is usually composed of Portland cement and water and when mixed together it binds the fine and coarse aggregates together

A typical mix is about 10 to 15 cement 60 to 75 sandaggregate 10 to 20 water and 5 to 8 air

The production process of cement

The manufacturing of cement is still one of the most energy consuming processes that is under taken in the world today But a lot of development has and still is taking place within the cement manufacturing industry with a view to meeting the government targets of reducing the amount of greenhouse gases produced per tonne of cement manufactured

Cement is said to be one of the most environmentally hazardous materials in the world adding more carbon dioxide to the atmosphere than the entire weight of the global airline industry quote from the Guardian Newspaper

Most of the stages in the manufacturing of cement have a negative impact on the environment and this report highlights those direct and indirect effects and how the future of cement manufacturing will continue to implement new methods of manufacturing to reduce the negative effects on the environment

The first stage in manufacturing cement is to obtain the raw materials from a quarry the raw materials are then crushed usually 2 or 3 times to approx 3 or less and then fed into a kiln in a dry state The raw materials are then heated up to approx 2700 degrees F in large steel rotary cylinder which is lined with a special heat resistant brick Kilns are usually at least 12 feet in diameter and mounted on a slight incline The finely ground raw material is then fed into the higher end of t

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