Common bus system

Common bus system

In this project we are going to perform simulation on 16 bit common bus To Understand what is common bus let us first discuss what is bus itself A bus is set of parallel lines that information dataaddresses instructions and other informationpasses on internal architecture of a computer Information travels on buses as a series of pulses each pulse representing a one bit or a zero bit Buses are coming in various sizes such as 4 bits8 bits16 bits 12 bits24 bits32 bits 64 bits80 bits96 bits and 128 bits

From the size of bus we can determine that how many bit a bus will carry in parallelThe speed of the is how fast it moves data along the path This is usually measured in MegaHertzMHz or millions of times or second

Data Carried by bus in a second is called as capacity of the busIn buses there is concept of internal and external buses Bus inside a processor is called is called as internal and outer to processor is called as external bus

A bus master is a combination if circuits control microchips and internal software that control the movement of information between major componenets inside the computer

A processor bus is a bus inside the processor Some processor designs simplify the internal structure by having one or two processor buses In a single processor bus system all information is carried around inside the processor on one processor bus In a dual processor bus system there is a source bus dedicated to moving source data and a destination bus dedicated to moving results An alternative approach is to have a lot of small buses that connect various units inside the processor While this design is more complex it also has the potential of being faster especially if there are multiple units within the processor that can perform work simultaneously a form of parallel processing

A system bus connects the main processor with its primary support components in particular connecting the processor to its memory Depending on the computer a system bus may also have other major components connected

A data bus carries data Most processors have internal data buses that carry information inside the processor and external data buses that carry information back and forth between the processor and memory

An address bus carries address information In most processors memory is connected to the processor with separate address and data buses The processor places the requested address in memory on the address bus for memory or the memory controller if there is more than one chip or bank of memory there will be a memory controller that controls the banks of memory for the processor If the processor is writing data to memory then it will assert a write signal and place the data on the data bus for transfer to memory If the processor is reading data from memory then it will assert a read signal and wait for data from memory to arrive on the data bus

In some small processors the data bus and address bus will be combined into a single bus This is called multiplexing Special signals indicate whether the multiplexed bus is being used for data or address This is at least twice as slow as separate buses but greatly reduces the complexity and cost of support circuits an important factor in the earliest days of computers in the early days of microprocessors and for small embedded processors such as in a microwave oven where speed is unimportant but cost is a major factor

An instruction bus is a specialized data bus for fetching instructions from memory The very first computers had separate storage areas for data and programs instructions John Von Neumann introduced the von Neumann architecture which combined both data and instructions into a single memory simplifying computer architecture The difference between data and instructions was a matter of interpretation In the 1970s some processors implemented hardware systems for dynamically mapping which parts of memory were for code instructions and which parts were for data along with ha

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