Digital image processing

Digital image processing

Vision is the most dynamic of all our senses since it provides us with a huge amount of information about what surrounds us It is not surprising that an ancient Chinese proverb that quotes A picture is worth a thousand words is still widely used All this information is valuable for simple procedures for example planning our everyday activities but also for more complex processes as the development of our intelligence At the level of social organization images are also important as a means of transmitting information and almost all of todays media are based on our vision The huge amount of visual information and the need for its processing lead scientists and technicians towards research in order to discover a means for digital image storage and processing using computers This effort resulted in a new Information Engineering Industry called Digital Image Processing and Analysis This industry began to grow fifteen years ago However it has shown a dynamic development especially during the most recent years and it is considered a science and technology with a promising future and many potential As the title indicates Digital Image Processing is concentrated on digital images and their processing by a computer Therefore both the input and output of this process are digital images Digital image processing can be used for various reasons improvement of the quality of images filtering of noise caused by transmission compression of image information image storage and digital transmission On the other hand digital image analysis deals with the description and recognition of the content of an image This description is usually symbolic Therefore the input when it comes to digital image analysis is a digital image and the output is a symbolic description Image analysis principally tries to mimic human vision Therefore an identical term which is often used is Computer Vision It has to be underlined that computer vision is a complex neurophysiological mechanism driven by upper level knowledge high level vision The characteristics of this mechanism are not known and existing mathematical models are yet inadequately accurate As a result it is difficult to simulate high level vision by a computer For this reason the methods used for image analysis when it comes to machine vision and human vision vary significantly Image analysis is easier in the case of applications where the environment objects and lighting conditions are fixed This is usually the case of a production process in industry The branch of computer vision which is used in industry is called Robotic Vision The analysis is much more difficult in applications where the environment is unknown and there is a large number of objects or the different objects are unclear or difficult to separate for example in biomedical applications or in outdoor natural scenes In such applications even experts find it difficult to recognize objects For these reasons it is still difficult to obtain a general image analysis system Most existing systems are designed for specialized applications


Digital image processing and analysis are related to various other scientific areas because of their subject of research Recently there is a tendency at least in terms of applications for digital image processing to become an interdisciplinary industry Some related research areas are
Digital Signal Processing
Pattern Recognition
Artificial Intelligence
Telecommunications and Media
Multimedia Systems

We will examine the relation of each of these areas with digital image processing and image analysis independently since the way they are related is not very clear

Digital Image Processing Vs Digital Signal Processing

Every image can be described as a twodimensional signal Therefore for the analysis and processing of digital images all the techniques of digital signal processing can be used This area provides the theoretical and programming base for image proces

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