Effect of Momordica Fruits on Diabetic Complications

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Effect of Momordica Fruits on Diabetic Complications

Effect of Momordica charantia fruits on Diabetic Complications



Introduction

Momordica Charantia Cucurbitaceae or Bitter Melon is a Tropical vegetable is a common food in Indian cusine and has been used extensively in folk medicine Dasgupta 2011 In Ayurveda the fruit is considered as tonic stomachic stimulant emetic antibilous laxative and alterative Bitter melon has been used in various Asian traditional medicine systems for a long time Like most bittertasting foods bitter melon stimulates digestion While this can be helpful in people with sluggish digestion dyspepsia and constipation it can sometimes make heartburn and ulcers worse The fact that bitter melon is also a demulcent and at least mild inflammation modulator however means that it rarely does have these negative effects based on clinical experience and traditional reports Kumar et al 2010 Patel et al 2010 Sharma et al2011

In the initial study significant antihyperglycemic activiy of crude powder of Mcharantia fruits was observed in STZinduced diabetic rats Among the various extracts aqueous extract showed significant effect on postprandial hyperglycemia in normal as well as STZ diabetic rats after oral administration of sucrose and also showed significant lowering of fasting blood glucose in STZ diabetic rats Therefore the aqueous extract was subjected to the fractionation and two different fractions namely butanol and aqueous fractions were obtained The fractions were again administered to the STZ diabetic rats in which both the fractions showed significant antihyperglycemic although the activity was greater in aqueous fraction treated group

The present chapter mainly illustrates the long term multiple dose effect of aqueous fraction of Mcharantia in high fructose diet fed low dose STZinduced diabetic rats HFDSTZ and high dose STZ induced diabetic rats Multiple dose study in the animal models provide the better understanding about the overall effect of the selected fraction on the various symptoms and associated compilcations of diabetes mellitus Prior to the in vivo study the aqueous fraction has also subjected to the in vitro study using L6 cells to find out its effect on the cellular glucose uptake and insulin signaling

Design of study

Aqueous fraction of aqueous extract of Tbelerica fruits were subjected to in vitro study using L6 cells to see the effect of fraction on glucose uptake and insulin signaling In vivo study was performed using high fructose diet fed low dose STZinduced diabetic rats HFDSTZ and high dose STZinduced diabetic rats HFDSTZ rats were selected and grouped on the basis of elevated plasma triglycerides and cholesterol level while the high dose STZinduced diabetic rats were grouped on the basis of their glycated haemoglobin HbA1c level Multiple dose of aqueous fraction was carried out for one month and oral glucose tolerance test OGTT and biochemical analysis including plasma lipid profile analysis and hepatic and renal function tests were performed at regular intervals Since chronic complications are more pronounced in high dose STZ rats therefore at the end of the experiments the animals were sacrificed and the kidney of treated as well as untreated control groups were collected for the study of the effect of aqueous fraction on the molecular markers involved in oxidative stress induced diabetic nephropathy

Results

1 Concentration dependent effect of aqueous fraction of aqueous extract of Mcharantia fruits on glucose uptake in L6 cells

Treatment of aqueous fractions led to increase of basal as well as insulinstimulated glucose uptake in concentration dependent manner in L6 cells Figure 1 shows significant increase of 141fold plt005 was observed in treated L6 myotubes at the minimum concentration of 5 ugml Maximum increase of 166 fold plt001 was observed at 10 ugml Effect of aqueous fraction on insulininduced increase in glucose uptake was also studied When preincubated myotubes with various concentration of a

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