Example of micro operations microinstruction

Example of micro operations microinstruction

Q1 Give an Example of micro operations microinstruction micro program micro code

Sol Following are the examples of micro operations
Bus and Memory Transfers
Arithmetic Microoperations
Logic Microoperations

Example of Microinstruction

For Fetching Data

IF inter

ELSE next

instmap

Example of micro program

sp sp 1

mar sp mbr ac wr

wr

This pushes the AC value onto the stack

Example of Micro code

mar sp rd

sp sp 1 rd

ac mbr

Pop a number from the stack and place it in the AC

Q2 How Information Technology can be used for strategic advantages in business

Ans Globalisation IT has not only brought the world closer but it has allowed the worlds economy to become a single interdependent system We not only share information quickly and efficiently but also bring down barriers of linguistic and geographic boundaries The world has developed into a global village due to the help of information technology allowing countries like Chile and Japan who are not only separated by distance but also by language to shares ideas and information with each other

Communication With the help of information technology communication has also become cheaper quicker and more efficient We can now communicate with anyone around the globe by simply text messaging them or sending them an email for an almost instantaneous response The internet has also opened up face to face direct communication from different parts of the world thanks to the helps of video conferencing

Cost effectiveness Information technology has helped to computerize the business process thus streamlining businesses to make them extremely cost effective money making machines This in turn increases productivity which ultimately gives rise to profits that means better pay and less strenuous working conditions

More time IT has made it possible for businesses to be open 24 x7 all over the globe This means that a business can be open anytime anywhere making purchases from different countries easier and more convenient It also means that you can have your goods delivered right to your doorstep with having to move a single muscle

Q3 What Characteristics of software make it different from other engineering products

Ans Characteristics of software products

Software products may be

Generic developed to be sold to a range of different customers

Custom developed for a single customer according to their specification

Q4 What are different addressing modes available

Sol Various Addressing Modes are

1 Immediate Addressing Mode
Immediate addressing is used to load constants into registers and to use constants as operands
The constant is part of the instruction word
eg ADD 5
Add 5 to contents of accumulator
5 is operand
Limited range

2 Direct Addressing Mode
With direct addressing the address is part of the instruction
Usually the OpCode is one word and address is the succeeding word or words Effective address EA address field A
eg ADD A
Add contents of cell A to accumulator
Look in memory at address A for operand
Single memory reference to access data
No additional calculations to work out effective address
Limited address space

3 Indirect Addressing Mode
RegisterMemory cell pointed to by address field contains the address of pointer to the operand
EA A

Look in A find address A and look there for operand
eg ADD A

Add contents of cell pointed to by contents of A to accumulator

4 Register Direct Addressing Mode
Limited number of registers
Very small address field needed
Shorter instructions
Faster instruction fetch
No memory access
Very fast execution
Very limited address space
Multiple registers helps performance
Requires good assembly programming or compiler writing

5 Register Indirect Addressing Mode
The instruction specifies a register which contains the address of the operand

MOVE 1000R7 R7 1000
As there are usually only a small number of internal

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