Global Leadership And Organizational Behavior

Global Leadership And Organizational Behavior

Leadership has stimulated thousands of research studies for social scientists for over 60 years Yukl 2006 More than four hundred definitions have been proposed to explain the dimensions of leadership Crainer 1995 Fleishman et al 1991 yet Crainer 1995 addressed that it is a veritable minefield of misunderstanding and difference through which theorists and practitioners must tread warily p 12 Leadership is therefore not an easy concept to define Whilst one definition of leadership directly related to our discussion is the system proposed by Stogdill 1950 whose work had a profound impact on one of stages of research to be encountered below

Leadership may be considered as the process act of influencing the activities of an organized group in its efforts toward goal setting and goal achievement p 3

Three elements can be addressed in this definition influence group and goal First leadership is viewed as a process of influence where the leader has an impact on others by inducing them to behave in a certain way Second that influence process is conceptualized as taking place in a group context Collinson 2009 argues group members are invariably taken to be the leaders followers although that is by no means obligatory He however emphasizes that without followers leaders do not exist and that leadership only exists in the interaction between leaders and followers In addition Parry and Bryman 2006 add leadership being a process of influence need not come from the person in charge but can come from anyone in the group Third a leader influences the behavior of group members in the direction of goals with which the group is faced Mullins 2008 Moreover leaders must help create cohesive and motivated teams Knippenberg DeCremer 2008 They must sell or champion new initiatives Howell and Boies 2004 And leaders must help people make sense of crises Drazin et al 1999

22 Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness GLOBE Project

221 Introduction of GLOBE Project

Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness GLOBE Project highlighted the investigation of leadership national culture and organizational practices concentrated on further sharpening and refining the cultural knowledge for providing a systematic and integrated methodology on the interaction of crosscultural management Chhokar et al 2007 House 2004a Gupta and House 2004 Based on the quantitative data of 17000 managers in 62 societies GLOBE as a tenyear research program is supported by 150 investigators throughout the world House 2004b The major constructs investigated in the GLOBE Program are nine dimensions of cultures in the perception of global leader behaviors

Power Distance

Uncertainty Avoidance

InGroup Collectivism

Institutional Collectivism

Gender Egalitarianism

Performance Orientation

Assertiveness Orientation

Future Orientation

Humane Orientation

222 Intellectual Roots of GLOBE Constructs

Gupta and House 2004 emphasized that GLOBE constructs were theoretically derived and empirically validated They argued that Power Distance and Uncertainty Avoidance are based on Hofstedes 1980 work Ingroup Collectivism measures pride in and loyalty to the family and is derived from the Triandis et al 1988 work on ingroups Institutional Collectivism captures inversely the same construct as Hofstedes Individualism They addressed that Hofstedes 1980 construct of Masculinity was used as a basis to develop the two distinct dimensions Gender Egalitarianism and Assertiveness Orientation Gender Egalitarianism is similar to the United Nations Development Programs UNDP concept of Gender Empowerment Assertiveness Orientation is rooted in the interpersonal communication literature Sarros Woodman 1993 In addition they claimed that Performance Orientation was derived from McClellands 1961 work on the need for achievement Future Orientation is derived from Kluckhohn and Strodtbecks 1961 Past Present and Future Orientation dimension and

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