Indian Heat Desiccated Traditional Milk Product Khoa Biology Essay

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Indian Heat Desiccated Traditional Milk Product Khoa Biology Essay

Khoa is a traditional dairy product which is produced in India by both organized and unorganized sector It is the base for various traditional sweets manufactured in India Apart from the traditional method of manufacturing khoa many methods were developed recently for the manufacture and storage of it In the present essay I had mentioned about various technologies available for manufacture and storage of khoa

According to the National Dairy Development Board India the annual production of milk during the year 20072008 is 1048 million tonnes

India has two types of sectors for the marketing of milk and its products one is organized sector and another is unorganized sector The unorganized sector accounts for 88 of total milk production in India and it includes marketing of raw milk and traditional products such as locally manufactured ghee fresh cheese and sweets The organized sector accounts for 1012 of total milk production in India and it includes the dairy cooperatives and organized private dairies which produces Westernstyle dairy processed products based on pasteurization The share of organized sector in the total milk production handling is increasing by the years FAO 2002In India out of all dairy products consumed traditional products account for over 90 percent In order to protect the surplus milk from spoilage simple processes were developed to produce products like curds yoghurtlike fermented product Makkhan butter Khoa desiccated milk product Chhana and Paneer soft cottage cheeselike cultured product and Ghee clarified butter FAO 2001 And nearly 7 of milk produced in India is converted to khoa ICMR 2000

KHOA MANUFACTURING PROCESS

Source httpwwwdairyforallcomindiankhoaphp

FigurePeda

Figure Burfi

Figure Kalakand

Figure Gulab Jamun

In India khoa is traditionally manufactured by continuous boiling of milk in a shallow iron or stainless steel vessel to remove moisture and the process continues till the total solid level is attained in the range of 65 to 72 Pal and Raju 2006 As per the Prevention of Food Adulteration PFA India 1955 rules khoa sold by whatever variety or name such as Pindi Danedar Dhap Mawa or Kava which is obtained from cow or buffalo or goat or sheep milk or milk solids or a combination there of by rapid desiccation and having not less than 30 per cent milk fat on dry weight basis The Bureau of Indian Standards has given the requirements for three types of khoa viz Pindi Danedar and Dhap in terms of total solids fat ash acidity coliforms and yeast and mold counts Indian Standard IS 4883 1980 A minimum fat level of 55 in buffalo milk is required to achieve the PFA standard Khoa has been categorized into three major groups ie Pindi for Burfi Peda Dhap Gulabjamun and Danedar Kalakand on the basis of composition texture and end use

KHOA MANUFACTURING PROCESS CHEMICAL ASPECTS

Khoa contain 7580 moisture 2537 fat 17 20 protein 2225 lactose and 3638 ash Aneja et al 2002The milk is subjected to high heat temperature during the manufacture of khoa which initiates number of physicochemical changes resulting in characteristics sensory textural and structural properties in khoa The continuous heating will reduce water activity inactivates various milk enzymes and destroy pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms apart from development of desirable flavors and texture The heating process promotes the denaturation and coagulation of milk proteins and the process is more rapid due to frothing and incorporation of air by continuous stirring Sindhu et al 2000 The disruption of fat globule membrane and subsequent release of free fat that account for 448628 percent of total fat in khoa occurs due to vigorous agitation during heating process of milk Mann and Gupta 2006 Adhikari et al 1994 has studied the interaction between milk macromolecules during heating of buffalo milk using Transmission Electron Microscopy TEM and observed caseincasein caseinwhey protein and caseinlactose interaction with g

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