Interventions and Strategies for Teenage Pregnancy

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Interventions and Strategies for Teenage Pregnancy

Matthew Love

Families Teenage Pregnancy

One social problem associated with the family is teen pregnancy Teen pregnancy rates have fallen in recent years The birth rate for US teenagers aged 1519 fell 8 from 2014 to 2015 to 223 births per 1000 females aged 1519 falling below the record low set in 2014 The rate for this group has declined 46 since 2007 and 64 since 1991 Hamilton 2016 However the percentage of women age 1519 in the US is still higher than all industrialized nations in the world Shah 2014 Rates are higher among black and Hispanic teens with 4 in 10 becoming pregnant by 20 years of age as compared with 2 in 10 white teens Secura et al 2014

Individuals affected by teen pregnancy include the parents of the child as well as the child According to Shah 2014 the child is susceptible to low birth weight and premature birth Those two factors are important for the health and growth of the child Shah 2014 Fathers are also much more likely to be shut out of raising the child because they are unable to support the child financially Furstenberg 2016 The children are also more likely to be less successful themselves in school Secura et al 2014 There is also an impact on the economy Teen pregnancy accounts for close to 10 billion in healthcare costs Shah 2014 For the teen mothers and fathers they are at risk of not completing high school at much higher rates Shah 2014

The Centers for Disease Control CDC considers teenage pregnancy a winnable battle and the goal of the CDC is to reduce the teenage pregnancy rate by 20 Secura et al 2014 Currently policies in place to help reduce to teen pregnancy are directed through the public education system In 2010 President Barak Obama started the teen pregnancy prevention initiative Schalet 2014 The change in this policy from previous policies is that it no longer required abstinence only education This policy called for evidence based information to be taught Schalet 2014 Abstinence only education has been shown to not be effective in delaying sexual activity Schalet 2014 It can also withhold important information on STDs risky sexual behavior and the use of contraception Schalet 2014 There are also issues with evidence based education in that it tends to be more broad and does not include complex factors like race income inequality and gender differences Schalet 2014

One specific program aimed at reducing teen pregnancy is called Positive Prevention Plus The program is funded by the Office if Adolescent Health and the program teaches both abstinence communication and birth control While the program has not seen significant improvements in teen pregnancy it has shown improvements in delaying sexual activity It has also shown improvements in teens using birth control LaChausse 2016

According to research by Secura et al one of the most effective ways to avoid teen pregnancy is longacting reversible contraception The issues with longacting reversible contraception LARC are access and cost Only 5 of teens reported using LARC methods Secura et al 2014 In a study of LARC methods and those that used them The observed rates of pregnancy birth and abortion were substantially lower than national rates among all US teens particularly when compared with sexually experienced US teens Secura et al 2014

Works Cited

Shah M K Gee R E Theall K P 2014 Partner support and impact on birth outcomes among teen pregnancies in the United States Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology 271 1419 httpdoiorg101016jjpag201308002

Secura Gina M Madden Tessa McNicholas Colleen Mullersman Jennifer Buckel Christina M Zhao Qiuhong Peipert Jeffrey F 2014 Provision of NoCost LongActing Contraception and Teenage Pregnancy New England Journal of Medicine 14 13161323 httpwwwnejmorgdoifull101056NEJMoa1400506 New England Journal of Medicine October 2 2014 371141316

Furstenberg F 2016 Reconsidering Teenage Pregnancy and Parenthood Societies 64 33 httpwwwmdpicom207546986433htm

LaChausse R G 2016

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