Introduction To Social Sciences Sociology Essay

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Introduction To Social Sciences Sociology Essay

The UK family has undergone considerable changes since 1945 Britain nowadays is a society mixed with different household types including cohabiting families with or without children divorced or nevermarried lone parents gay and lesbian couples McRAE 1999 p1 This essay will demonstrate that family as an example of continuity change an explanation on the changes of household types I will also discuss marriage and divorce rates the rising in cohabitation and lone parents and the sexuality of society and value changes At the expense of traditions this diversity has gained and there has been a downward trend particularly in the traditional nuclear family This will compare the value changes of different family types using three social sciences disciplines of history politics and sociology

First of all Patriarchy and Second World War are the main factors to family of the Golden Age According to German 1981 in early days women must struggle for their rights as that is the time when both the households and society are mendominated The Golden Age portrayed husband as breadwinner of household and wife as home maker A social norm is marriage is for life and a family was built up by a pair of heterosexual couple with dependent children To explain further conservative thinkers stated family is a place of offspring reproduction protection of childrens safety inculcation of proper values on children Hughes and Fergusson 2004 p60 Also hierarchy and stability are the two important elements to maintain a healthy family and society ibid On the other hand changes in family structure were related to rising needs for stability and peoples thought of family as a unit after the World War II WWII and probably can help reordering of a healthy society after a war Later the situation of only men working out to earn money did not last long after WWII as the UKs economy was depraving and thus women need to work to keep it running Gender Role 1980 Thus conservatives argued changes in the labour market

rise in womens employment rate and the interventions of the welfare state give threats to males status and power in the society Hughes and Fergusson 2004 p61 It follows that as age at marriage teenage motherhood and childless has risen and smaller families size Cohabitation before and between marriages has become common Rimmer 1981 Consequently there is a sharp jump in births outside marriages such as in the 1990s the birth rate is over 30 rating above European mean Irwin 2000 and rising divorce rates accompanied by numerous loneparent families Rimmer 1981 As a result the nuclear family is on the decline

One argument is that marriage is still popular but there is steady two thirds fall in marriage rates since 1970s The Centre For Social Justice 2006 The number of marriages has dropped by 35 in England Wales following by a rapid fall of 3 to 4 per annum later The British Academy 2010 Previous generations growing up in an environment with strict sexual morality view marriage as a lifelong promise and cohabitation outside marriage are prohibited however the youngsters are changing their attitude and accepted to them Moreover there is evidence showing that the close relationship between cohabitation and divorce Surprisingly UK is particularly having higher divorce rate when comparing to the other countries Before 1867 divorce was unpopular because it costs a lot and heavily stigmatized Alternatively the establishment of Divorce Reform Act 1969 which introduced an irretrievable breakdown of relationship has contributed to rapidly rising divorce rates The Social Issues Research Centre 2008 Apart from womens higher income and ability to take care of themselves changes in peoples material livelihoods and unreasonable behaviour of partners are also the causes for divorce Feminists John Stuart Mill protested that the penalty of selfdefense by women due to domestic violence should not be that heavy than

a violent man The British Academy 2010 What is more fem

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