knockout mouse

knockout mouse

Knockout Mouse

1 Introduction

Generally DNA was first transferred by design into an organism and expressed as protein therefore the potential of the tool that was being discovered must be found quickly by the scientist Early experiments were limited to bacteria and viruses but soon after the field of experiments were enlarged to those on animals and plants EHill 2002

This topic knockout mouse relates to the field of genetic engineering which further delves into a more specific technique called transgenic technology Knockoutsciencecom2009 analyses that transgenic technology refers to the alteration of a certain genomic DNA of an organism in genetic engineering As the result both offspring of a transgenic organism and the parents homozygous will share the same genotype The most common type of transgenic organism used in research is the knockout mouse thoughknockout rats andknockout rabbits have also been developed

A knockout mouse defines a mouse which is being genetically engineered by turning off one or more genes through a process called gene knockout Genomegov also explains that a knockout mouse is a laboratory mouse in which researchers have inactivated an existing gene by replacing it or disrupting it with an simulated piece of DNA The loss of gene activity often causes changes in a mouses phenotype which includes appearance activities and other observable physical and biochemical characters

Knockoutsciencecom 2009 also elucidates that it has become routine to develop knockout mice with disruptions in specific genes By observing the resulting phenotype scientists are able to view the effects of this gene disruption from these knockout mice It is true to say that the phenotype is a direct result of the gene knockout and can offer evidences as to the biological role of the gene but rarely the phenotype can also be the result of compensatory or indirect effects of the gene knockout Sometimes the result obtained in a phenotype can be completely unrelated to the disrupted gene Additionally some gene knockouts create alethal phenotypewhere the organism fails to develop in utero making in vivo studies exceedingly difficult

It was claimed that this technique may help to solve dopaminerelated neurological illnessesCarol AT 1996 The technique allows transgenic animals that lack of a certain gene or its associated protein product to grow In experiments with mice researchers were able to knockout the animals dopamine transporters causing the mice to behave as if they had been given huge doses of cocaine or amphetamine

WalinskiH2009 states that knockout mice have different way of uses First the specific functions of particular genes can be tested and the regulation of these particular genes can be observed The effects of a particular gene can be determined by examining what is happening in anin vivo model we are able to determine the effects a particular gene may have These effects would be impossible to observe in a culture dish

Another useful application of knockout technology is in biomedical research and drug development Knockout mouse can be used to study the evolution of thousands of genetically based diseases at the molecular level in order to seek for the best medications that act on that gene For Example LiliX and AsokC 2005 both agree that Duffy positive and Duffy knockout mice have revealed both human malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax and mouse malaria parasite Plasmodium yoelii by using parasite invasion Furthermore the knockout technology may lead to the discovery of the next generation of blockbuster therapies for curing numerous diseases based on novel targets from the human genome

2 Background Genetics

Timeline for the key events in the history of knockout mouse

1900 Japanese fancy mice became mutant resources for mouse genetics

1915 The first verterbrate linkage mapping was discovered between albino c and pinkeyed dilution p loci in the mouse

1923 Discovery of Xray induced muta

* If you are the original writer of this essay and no longer wish to have the essay published on the WetPapers website then please email us at wet papers 1 @ gmail dot com for removal request.

© 2018 WetPapers. All rights reserved. Privacy Policy Terms of Service Disclaimer Copyright