Observation of Ecosystem in National Park

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Observation of Ecosystem in National Park

Ecology is the term that is used to describe habitation of organisms This term was first used by the German zoologist in the year 1866 Ecosystem can thus be defined as a dynamic system in which the plant animals and micro organisms interact with the non living abiotic components for survival T Vold 2008 Ecology can be plant ecology or animal ecology depending upon the area of focus When both plants and the animals are given equal attention then it is called bio ecology The major component of ecology is the environment that prevails there It can be categorized into 3 broad types Biotic living environment which consist of all the living organisms like plants animals and micro organisms The biotic component consist of three different groups of organisms the producers the consumers and the decomposers The next type of environment is the Abiotic non living environment This component basically defines the flow of energy that is required for sustainment of any living organism It consists of all the physical factors like temperature climate precipitation soil types etc The third type of environment is the cultural one It comprises of all the means and mechanisms in which human interact with the environment and the influence on the ecosystem

There are many functions associated with an eco system Ecosystem forms the niche where all the needs and requirements of the biotic components are satisfied completely It forms the sole medium of interaction and interdependence of biotic and abiotic components on each other An ecosystem is characterized by transfer of food nutrients and energy from one source to another In this report the aim is to focus on the ecological character of Australian Ramsar Wetlands and study the interactions between the biotic and the abiotic components Further in this study the systems energy flow and the chemical cycling have also been discussed

METHODS

The area of study in this report is the Kakadu National Park The kakadu National Park Ramsar site is located approximately 200 kilometers east of Darwin in the Northern Australia This national park comprises of the sandstone plateau escarpments estuaries seasonal floodplains tidal flats permanent freshwater pools freshwater marshes that are seasonal in nature and the offshore islands The ecological character of any wetland can be determined by summing together all the processes components and services of that very wetland Kakadu national park has eleven critical components Melaleuca forests mangroves billabongs and the palustrine wetlands seeps and water holes waterfalls populations of various birds freshwater fish populations of saltwater and fresh water crocodiles sharks turtles invertebrate species This park is known for having four critical processes water bird breeding fluvial hydrology turtle nesting and the fire regimes Also it is characterized by three critical services global diversity maintenance resource of fisheries and the living culture that is contemporary Since this national Park has variety of landforms and different flora and fauna species it forms a natural ecosystem and has been chosen as the subject of this study The day chosen to visit this site was 4th May 2014 and the time of observation was kept from 100 Pm to 400 PM

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
Biotic Components

The major biotic component of this ecosystem is the distinct flora that is spread across the park due to the presence of various landforms Grasses and forest trees form the biotic components The former can tolerate extreme heat and long spells of dryness while the latter mostly develop in the cooler parts In the lowlands mainly spear grass sedges and wild flowers are found New world encyclopedia 1990 The Savannah woodlands are home for several species like the large reptiles mammals and others Each species has a specific role in the Kakadus ecosystem food web Kakadu National Park 2011 There is a large variety of vertebrates and invertebrates that inhabit this national park

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